Depression: information, symptoms, types, and treatment

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  • Post last modified:February 13, 2020
Depression: information, symptoms, types, and treatment
Depression: information, symptoms, types, and treatment

Depression is a universal mental disorder that performs with depressed mood, lack of interest or pleasure, loss of energy, feeling of guilt or low self-worth, uneasy sleep or hunger, and lower concentration.

In addition, depression often comes with symptoms of anxiety. These problems can be chronic or recurrent and can significantly reduce a person’s ability to carry out everyday responsibilities. At its worst, depression can lead to suicide.

When a person has depression, he interferes with daily life and normal functioning. It can cause pain for both the person with depression and his or her caregiver. Doctors refer to the condition as “depressive disorder,” or “clinical depression.” This is a real disease. It is not a sign of a person’s weakness or character flaw. You cannot get out of clinical depression. Most people experiencing depression require treatment to get better.

What are the signs and symptoms?

Sadness is only a small part of depression. Somebody with a recession may not feel sadness at all. Just as with any mental illness, people with physical depression experience varying symptoms. If you are seeing any signs and symptoms for at least 2 weeks, then you may suffer from depression:-

Persistent sad, anxious, or “empty” mood;
Feelings of hopelessness, pessimism;
Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, helplessness;
Failure of pleasure or interest in activities and hobbies;
Decreased energy, fatigue, being slowed down;
Difficulty concentrating, remembering, making decisions;
Difficulty sleeping, early-morning awakening, or oversleeping;
Appetite and/or weight changes;
Thoughts of death or suicide, suicide attempts;
Restlessness, irritability;
Persistent physical symptoms;

What are the types of depression?

Major depression:-
Critical symptoms that conflict with the capacity to work, sleep, study, eat and enjoy life. An incident can occur only once in a person’s lifetime, but more usually, a person has various incidents.
Persistent depressive disorder:-
A depressed mood that remains for at least 2 years. A person diagnosed with persistent depressive disorder may have episodes of less severe symptoms as well as major depression, but the symptoms should last 2 years.
Psychotic depression:-
This happens when a person has severe distress and has some variety of psychosis, such as breaking misconceptions or breaking with reality (illusions), or hearing or seeing things that others do not hear. Can give or see (hallucinations).
Postpartum depression:-
This infant is very cruel than “baby blues”, which many women experience after giving birth when hormonal and physiological changes occur and new responsibilities of caring for a newborn can be taken over. It is estimated that 10-15% of women experience postpartum depression after delivery.
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD):-
It is characterized by the onset of depression during the winter months when there is less natural sunlight. Depression usually lasts during spring and summer. SAD can be effectively treated with light therapy, but about half of people with SAD do not get better with light therapy alone. Antidepressant medication and psychotherapy may reduce SAD symptoms, either alone or in combination with light therapy.
Bipolar disorder:-
It is different from depression. The reason for inclusion in this list is that a person with bipolar disorder experiences episodes of extremely low mood (depression). But a person with bipolar disorder also experiences an extremely high mood (called “mania”).

What are the causes?

There is not a single cause, Scientists believe that the causes of many factors include:-

Heredity:- Apathy runs in families. Some people are born with a tendency to become depressed, especially when they are under stress;
Trauma:- When people experience trauma at an early age, it can cause long-term changes in how their brain responds to fear and stress. These brain changes may indicate that people who have a history of childhood trauma are more likely to experience depression;
Genetics:- There is a risk of mood disorders and suicides in the family, but genetic inheritance is only one factor;
Circumstances of life:- Marital status, financial condition and where a person’s life is affected whether a person develops depression, but it may be a case of “hen or egg”;
Structure of the brain:- Imaging studies have shown that the frontal of the brain becomes less active when a person is depressed. Depression is also associated with changes in how the pituitary gland and hypothalamus react to hormone stimulation;
Medical conditions:- Somebody who has a history of sleep disorders, medical illness, chronic pain, anxiety, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are more possible to develop depression;
Chronic illness:- such as diabetes, asthma, heart failure, and COPD. It has been noted that individuals who were diagnosed with COPD, and who were also undergoing treatment for symptoms of depression, had a more favorable outcome if onset from a coronary event;
Drug and alcohol abuse:- About 30% of people with drug abuse problems also have depression;
Family or marriage problems;
Job problems;
Medical illnesses;
Disability;
Crime victims;
Financial problems;
Loss or End or damage such as the death of a loved one;

Test and diagnosis

To diagnose depression, a person must experience a major depressive episode that lasts more than two weeks. Symptoms of a major depressive episode include:

  • Loss of interest or loss of pleasure in all liveliness;
  • Change in appetite or weight;
  • Sleep disturbances;
  • Feeling excited or feeling slow;
  • Fatigue;
  • Low self-worth, feelings of guilt or deficiencies;
  • Difficulty in focusing or decision making;
  • Suicidal thoughts or intentions.
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The treatments

The key is to get a specific assessment and a treatment plan can include any one or a combination:-

  1. Medications including antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotic medications;
  2. Psychotherapy including cognitive behavioral therapy, family-centered therapy, and interpersonal therapy;
  3. Brain stimulation therapy including electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) or repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (RTR);
  4. Light therapy, which uses a lightbox to expose a person to a full-spectrum light and to regulate the hormone melatonin;
  5. Exercise;
  6. Alternative medicine including acupuncture, meditation, and nutrition;
  7. Self-management strategy and education;
  8. Mind/body/soul approaches like meditation, faith, and prayer;
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